The original Parliament of Scotland or Estate of Scotland was a legislative body of the Independent Scotland and existed from the 13th century until it merged with the Parliament of England under the Act in1707 to form Kingdom of Great Britain. The parliament was referred to as Holyrood. It was designed by the catalan architect Enric Miralles ,some of the principal features of the complex include leaf-shaped buildings, a grass-roofed branch merging into adjacent parkland and gabion walls formed from the stones of previous buildings. Throughout the building there are many repeated motifs.
Speaking about the structure of the parliament, it is necessary to point out that there are 129 members of the parliament that form the elected body. They are elected for four-year terms. At the beginning of each parliamentary session, the parliament elects one M.P to serve as the Presiding Officer and two MPs to serve as the deputies. The Presiding Officer and deputies are elected by a secret ballot of the 129 MSPs. The Presiding Officer is responsible for ensuring that the Parliament functions effectively and has the staff, property and resources it requires to operate. The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament has the seats arranged in a hemicycle, which reflects the desire to encourage consensus amongst elected members. There are 131 seats in the debating chamber. 129 seats are occupied by the MPs, two seats are occupied by the Scottish Law officers , being members of the Scottish Governement. The particular design features, the unusual shapes and decorations of the building,concrete vaults which are polished to the "marble" smoothness are vivid in the lobby. The upper level has a conference room in the form of an amphitheater, lit by the natural light that pours through the windows and large glazed openings in the ceiling. The structure of the chamber’s roof is very unusual. It is supported by the powerful 30m.- beams of laminated oak, fastened with metal beams and handmade steel "nodes". Some rooms for the meetings of the committees and of the other departments of the Parliament are situated in the four towers behind the chamber. The Offices of the members of the Parliament have a completely different design. They remind vaulted monastic cells. The structure of the windows and of the window areas is unusual, resembling a bizarre niche, dubbed the "bay for thought." Another interesting place, sharply contrasting with the rest of modern design is the magnificent mansion the Queensberry House, built in the XVII century. The restoration has returned it the past splendor . Today, it is used for the living of the members of the Parliament.
• The first mention of the Scottish Parliament relates 1235 during the reign of Alexander II, King of Scotland
. The Scottish Parliament, unlike the parliament in England, was unicameral. It was formed of representatives from the three estates of the kingdom:
1. clergy (bishops and abbots had the right to participate directly at the sessions of the the Parliament);
2. nobility (dukes, counts, peers of the parliament )
3. People from the town, elected by the municipal authorities
• The creation a separate parliament for Scotland has not led to the exclusion of Scottish MPs from the Parliament of Great Britain: nationwide elections are organized in Scotland and the Scottish MPs continue to participate at the work of the supreme legislative body of the country and at the formation of the British government.
• In 1997, the Scottish people voted for a separate Scottish Parliament. In 1999, after the election of the MPs, the Scottish Parliament began its sessions
By Mascaliuc Victoria
The Best Engineering Projects .
Others from The Best Engineering Projects
From the beginning of its existence, the mankind tried to prove that it can create something great and eternal. Different civilizations left many sublime pieces of architecture that are worth speaking and admiring even today. This is the reason that makes everybody be so interested in these projects.
A project is scheme, a plan that has objectives, mandate and sponsors and it is going to be implemented by a construction company.
The Structure of the Project
Speaking about the structure of any projects, it is necessary to emphasize that there are some stages that are important:
Mandate- this a part where it is necessary to explain if the sponsors have the power to initiate this project and if the sponsors provide all the resources that may be required.
Purpose and objectives- is a part of the project where the architects give the reasons and aims for the creation of a buildings, pieces of furniture, things…….
Benefit – this is the most difficult and unpredictable part. During the project startup, the Project Manager works with the sponsors to define and agree a full model of anticipated benefits. These benefits would not normally be limited to the financial bottom line. They would include all types of benefits that are sought - measurable, financial ,internally focused and externally focused.
Timescales represents the duration of the project, the time when the initial benefit will be delivered, and the time when the project commences.
Control is one of the most significant parts. Here it is decided upon the Project Management and the executive control body.
Prioritization, sanity check and permission to proceed -this is a stage where it is substantial to mention the people, resources, funding, and technology that will be used and moreover the main risks that may occur.
Many organizations have specific processes and standards for requesting and evaluating a project. There will often be norms for assessing the financial benefits, payback period, internal rate of return etc. There may also be standard procedures for presenting a business case and obtaining approval for the capital investment. You should be sure that you have got all the information about the standards.
There are different types of projects as there are different spheres of life.
• Construction Projects where the artefacts are created.
• Research Projects generally produce knowledge.
• Procurement Projects that are touching upon the creation of some business relationships.
• Business Implementation Projects where some working processes are created.
The engineering projects are generally named a hymn to the talent and technological achievements of the mankind. They are expressed through bridges, dams, tunnels, skyscrapers, museums, sculptures, airports, theaters, telescopes and wind power. When in the past the European monarchs ordered some buildings to be constructed, it was clear that this will take many decades. Today the creation rarely takes more than a decade. The desire of the modern world to create something new and unusual is so large that it does not surprise anyone with some multi-million dollar project budgets. Speaking about some of the projects, the English Channel should be included here, the implementation of which required the close creative collaboration of Great Britain and France. Another example of excellent architectural style is the Millau Viaduct in the valley of the River Tarn in France, built in 2004, that is a masterpiece, combining the grandeur of form, function and beauty. Europe and America are famous for their variety of architectural styles, embodied in a relatively small area.
Images of The Scottish Parliament, icons, photos, figures, visions, appearances, illustrations, snapshots, captures, canvas and pictures of The Scottish Parliament - The Best Engineering Projects
The Scottish Parliament - The Restaurant and Its Design
The Scottish Parliament - The Modern and Controversal External View
The Scottish Parliament - The Beauty of the Chamber
The Scottish Parliament - The Unique Place of the MSPs
The Scottish Parliament - An Astonishing Office
The Scottish Parliament - An Intricate Design