Mount Nyiragongo is a resulting volcano in the Virunga Mountains associated with the East African zone faults. It is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, about 19 km north of Goma and Lake Kivu to the west of the border with Rwanda. The main crater is of 250 m deep, two km wide and sometimes contains a lava lake. Mount Nyiragongo is close to Nayamuragira , collectively responsible for 40% of the historical volcanic eruptions in Africa.
Activity of the volcano
There is little data on how long the volcano began erupting, but since 1882 it has erupted at least 34 times, including many periods where the activity was continuous. For many years it was often in the form of a rotating lake of lava in the crater. The volcano is partially superimposed on the two highest volcanoes - Barat and Shaher, and is surrounded by hundreds of small volcanic cones of ash from the eruption of the flank. The volcanism in Mount Nyiragongo is caused by the Earth's crust where two plates separated by an African plate. The spot is hot and probably partly responsible for the great work is Mount Nyiragongo . The resulting lava emitted by the eruption of Mount Nyiragongo is often unusually fluid. Mount Nyiragongo resulting lava is made of melilite nephelinites, alkali-rich type of volcanic rock, an unusual chemical composition may be the cause of the unusual fluidity of lava. Taking into account that most of the moving lava flows rather slowly and rarely pose a threat to human life, lava flows may race Mount Nyiragongo resulting downhill 60 miles per hour (100 km / h). This is due to the extremely low content of silica (mafic lava). Hawaiian volcanic eruptions are also characterized by lavas with low silica, but the Hawaiian volcanoes are broad, shallow-minded shield volcanoes in contrast to the steep cone of Mount Nyiragongo resulting in quartz content, and more than enough to slow most of the flow to a slow tempo. Mount Nyiragongo is world-famous for its semi-permanent lake of lava, which was found by a French volcanologist Harun Taziffom. Between the 1894 and the 1977 the crater contained an active lava lake. On January 10, 1977 the crater wall was broken, and the lake of lava, disappeared in less than an hour. Lava flowed down the flank of the volcano at speeds of up to 60 miles per hour on the upper slopes, sweeping away villages and killing at least 70 people. Some reports suggest much higher figures up to several thousand people. The hazards posed by eruptions like these are unique to Niiragongo. Nowhere else in the world there is such a steep stratovolcano lava lake containing, filled with a liquid lava. The proximity Niiragongo to densely populated areas increases the risk of natural disasters. In 1977, the eruption increased attention to the dangers posed by Niiragongo, and because of this, he identified a group of the Decade Volcanoes, worthy of particular study in 1991. In 1977, the eruption was preceded by the creation of a new small volcano, Murari, close to the slopes of Mount Nayamuragiry . The lava lake was transformed into the crater during eruptions in 1982-1983 and in 1994. Another major eruption began on January 17, 2002, after several months of increased seismic and fumarolic activity. 18-km-long fissure opened in the southern flank of the volcano, spread over several hours up to 2800 m elevation up to 1550 meters. The fissure uttered three lava flows, one of which flowed through the city of Goma. 400 000 people were evacuated from the city during the eruption. Lava also destroyed the airport of Goma, and reached the nearby Lake Kivu. This has led to fears that the lava might cause gas-saturated waters deep in the lake suddenly rise to the surface, releasing deadly amounts of carbon dioxide and methane - a similar case occurred in a lake in Cameroon Nayos in 1986. This did not happen, but volcanologists continue to monitor this area. About 45 people died in the eruption, and property damage was extensive. At least 15% of the city of Goma has been destroyed, leaving about 120,000 homeless people. The eruption was the most destructive eruption of expansive in modern history. Six months after the eruption began in 2002, the volcano erupted Nayamuragira well. Mount Nyiragongo resulting activity continues, but now the crater is limited , where another lake of lava formed at about 250 meters below the lake of lava in 1994. On Friday 6th July 2007 a 34-year-old Cheng Siu Cicely-Yang, a Chinese tourist in a tourist trip volcano slipped and fell 140 meters down into the crater. She landed on a small ledge and apparently survived the fall. Rescuers were unable to pull the woman that day, and she later died. Rescue efforts included a UN helicopter, but the attempt failed due to bad weather. Indian peacekeepers and the French volcanologist Jacques Dyurie descended down to try, at least, to recover the body.