Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion that underlies the beliefs, lifestyles and culture of the Jews. Judaism began in the 2nd millennium BC among the pastoral and agricultural population of the eastern Mediterranean. This was the period when a new religious concept of God, creator and ruler of the universe was introduced, which stood in the center of the formation of Israel and its covenant with God (Jewish were chosen and considered to be God’s people). The development of Judaism was accompanied by overcoming the vestiges of polytheism, which were supported in the Jewish community under the influence of the surrounding nations. While facing and overcoming the influence of the Hellenistic outlook of the world, Judaism began to spread. There was increased the role of the Jerusalem Temple, which became the center of attraction for devotees and a large Diaspora. The resistance of Jewish to Rome formed a new idea of Messiah coming who will restore the kingdom of Judah. With the spread of Christianity, the state religion of the Roman Empire (from the beginning of IV century AD.), and Islam (from VII.), Judaism did not accept their claims to a genuine expression of the truth. And despite the depressed position of the Jews, Judaism did not stop acute religious polemics with these religions throughout the middle Ages. During this period of time, Judaism tried to formulate its basic ethical principles. In modern times, some Jewish thinkers began to interpret Judaism as a universal moral teaching or as a cultural and historical phenomenon. The origin and the development of Zionism and the establishment of Israel State caused the debates about the role of Judaism in the life of the Jewish people. The canon of the sacred books of Judaism includes the Torah (Five Books of Moses), the books of prophets and the so-called Scriptures. The different explanations and interpretations of the canon are presented in the Talmud. The followers of Judaism are being settled around the world. Almost all of them belong to Jews ethnicity. The communities of Judaism followers are presented in more than 80 countries.
Others The Main Religions of the World .